HOME Pallas Cat Study and Conservation Program

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Last updated:
March 21, 2017

ARTICLES
Scientific
in alphabetical order / by date of load

Serum Concentrations of Lipids, Vitamin D Metabolites, Retinol, Retinyl Esters, Tocopherols and Selected Carotenoids in Twelve Captive Wild Felid Species at Four Zoos
Susan D. Crissey, Kimberly D. Ange, Krista L. Jacobsen, Kerri A. Slifka, Phyllis E. Bowen, Maria Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, Craig B. Langman, William Sadler, Stephen Kahn and Ann Ward
..Serum concentrations of several nutrients were measured in 12 captive wild felid species including caracal (Felis caracal), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), cougar (Felis concolor), fishing cat (Felis viverrinus), leopard (Panthera pardus), lion (Panthera leo), ocelot (Felis pardalis), pallas cat (Felis manul), sand cat (Felis margarita), serval (Felis serval), snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and tiger (Panthera tigris). 137 kb
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On number and distribution of Pallas's cat (Otocolobus manul) in Altai Republic
A.N. Barashkova, I.E. Smelansky, A.A. Tomilenko, S.V. Naidenko, A.B. Dambain
..The number and distribution of Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul) in Russia are less studied. The results of Pallas' cat investigation in the Kosh-Agach district of the Altai Republic are presented in the article. Pallas' cat was studied by the means of snow-tracking surveys in December 2006 and December 2009 and by the interviewing method. The density of Pallas' cat tracks in suitable biotopes was on average 2.02 tracks per 10 kilometers of the route. The number of Pallas' cats on the survey sites was on average 1.58 individuals per 10 sq.km (1.96 in the Sailughem ridge survey site and 1.15 in the Kurai ridge survey site respectively). A total number of Pallas' cats inhabited the Altai Republic was estimated as 650-680. The northern edge of Pallas' cat range in the Altai Republic is the Kurai intermountain depression. The single findings to the north from it (in the Chuia and Inegen' valleys) are probably rarely remote comings. The main threat for Pallas' cat is killing by the herders' dogs. Sometimes Pallas' cats were trapped in the traps for other animals and were poached. The educational work with the local people is a decisive measure for Pallas's cat conservation. It's necessary to create and enlarge the protected areas in the key habitats of Pallas's cats in the Altai Republic, firstly in the Sailughem ridge.(full text is available in Russian) 420 kb
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Dietary composition, plasticity, and prey selection of Pallass cats
Steven Ross, Bariushaa Munkhtsog, Stephen Harris
..Dietary plasticity and diet composition of Pallass cat (Otocolobus manul) was quantified in central Mongolia. Diet of Pallass cat was assessed by scat analyses, and prey surveys were used to estimate prey availability. Prey selection was calculated using multinomial likelihood ratio tests. Analysis of 146 scats identified 249 prey items. Pallass cats ate a broad range of small mammals, insects, birds, reptiles, and carrion, but Daurian pikas (Ochotona dauurica) were the most frequently consumed prey. Multinomial likelihood ratio tests indicated nonrandom selection of prey species. Pikas were selected disproportionately to their availability, and other more numerous prey items were used less than expected, indicating feeding specialization. 207 kb
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The effect of environmental enrichment on the activity level of a captive male Pallas' cat (Felis (Otocolobus) manul), 2010
Alekseicheva I. .
ANNOTATION
In captivity Pallas' cats usually lead a mostly sedentary lifestyle, which negatively affects their physical health. The use of feeding enrichment and changing exhibit design to achieve a more complex environment structure increases the level of physical activity and stimulates playing and exploring behavior. We can conclude that Pallas' cat's well-being was increased (full text is available in Russian). 48 kb
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Felis manul (from Zoographia rosso asiatica), 1811
P. Pallas
..The original article of the noted German and Russian naturalist Peter Simon Pallas, who firstly described Pallas cat. 293 kb
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Felis manul. Manul. Steppe Cat. 1850
Ed. Eversman
.. The original article on Pallas cat of Eduard Friedrich von Eversman - famous Russian naturalist, botanist, zoologist, doctor and traveler. 222 kb
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On number and distribution of Pallas's cat in Buryatia, 2008
A.N. Barashkova, S.V. Goryunova, A.L. Strelnikov, M.P. Suetina
ANNOTATION
Buryatia Republic is one of regions where Pallas's cat number and distribution is poorly studied. The distribution is limited by the steppe "islands" in the south part of the Buryatia where snow is not deep (less than 15 sm). The results of Pallas's cat investigations in steppe and forest-steppe regions of the South Buryatia (lower Selengha river and its tributaries - Jida, Khilok, Chikoi, and Tugnui) in February 2007 are presented in the paper. We interviewed local people and specialists. Pallas's cat number is stable but not high. The density was estimated about 1,6-2,0 individuals per 10 sq.km in Pallas's cat habitats. The cats were found in all intermountain troughs though the metapopulation is greatly fragmented because of steppe areas' distribution. It is necessary to carry out additional research including radiotelemetry and genetic investigation to determine conservation status of local populations of Pallas's cat in Buryatia (full text is available in Russian). 35 kb
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Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul) status in the south-east of Altai Republic, 2007
Naidenko S.V., Smelansky I.E., Barashkova A.N.
The results of snow-tracking countings in the Kosh-Agach district of Altai Republic in December 2006 are presented in the article. Pallas' cat density was estimated about 0,076-0,153 individuals per 1 sq.km in the area investigated (Sailughem ridge) - one of most populated by Pallas's cat part in Altai Republic. There was recorded preference in use different biotops. The pika is main prey. The primary mortality reason is killing by the herders' dogs (full text is available in Russian). 26 kb
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Activity of captive Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul manul) and its dependance of season, time of day, sex and phisiological state, 2009
Alekseicheva I.A.
ANNOTATION
Annual observations on 6 manuls have been conducted in Moscow zoo to study animals' budjet time. Rate of stay in shelters and activity is discussed with special reference to season, time of day and other factors. Behavior of captive and wild animals is compared (full text is available in Russian). 230 kb
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Study on seasonal testosterone excretion in males of Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul) in Moscow zoo, 2009
Tkacheva E.Yu., Alekseicheva I.A., Lifanova O.B.
ANNOTATION
We studied excretion of testosterone in two manul males which were kept in Moscow zoo (with natural photoperiod). To determine concentration of testosterone in animals' faeces we used EIA-method. Period of reproductive activity caused by testosterone increase was revealed from the end of January till May, may be due to peculiarities of photoperiod in Moscow latitude. Testosterone excretion in the male with diabetes was seasonal though he did not show sexual behavior. Level of blood glucose did not correlated with level of testosterone excretion in that male (full text is available in Russian). 224 kb
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The Use of Portable Construction Kits in Off-Exhibit Holding of Pallas' Cats (Otocolobus manul), 2007
Irina Alekseitcheva
Different reasons, such as quarantine when the enclosure has to be easily cleaned and disinfected, sometimes require that animals should be kept in downgraded conditions. Such animals are affected by extreme boredom and lack of physical activity. We have developed special portable constructions for temporary and quarantine facilities, where the installation of permanent species-specific enrichment devices would not be appropriate (though these kits can also be used in the permanent enclosures). 66 kb
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First Pallass Cat Photo-trapped in Khojir National Park, Iran
Mehdi Chalani, Arash Ghoddousi, Taher Ghadirian and Reza Goljani
As part of a camera-trapping survey for the identification of felid species in Khojir National Park, Iran, a manul or Pallass cat Otocolobus manul was photographed on 6 February 2008 for the first time. There being only a few reports of this secretive cat in Iran, this new locality is very interesting with regard to its national range. 86 kb
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First Record of Pallass Cat in Northwest Iran
Ali Aghili, Reza Masoud, James D. Murdoch and David P. Mallon
We report a recent record of a Pallass cat captured in the Azerbaijan Province of northwest Iran. To our knowledge, the capture represents the first record of the species in northwest Iran and the first documented occurrence of the erythristic (reddish) form of the species anywhere in Iran. 305 kb
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Pallas cat. (from "Mammals of Mongolia")
A. G. Bannikov
ANNOTATION
This is a classic article of last century about Pallas's cat in Mongolia, its exterior, distribution, and harvest there.
(full text is available in Russian) 184 kb
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Seasonal Fluctuations of the Behavioral Activity, Nutritional Requirements, and Weight of Pallas' Cats (2006)
T.S. Demina
The author of this article has done observation for Pallas' cat in the Breeding Station of the Moscow Zoo for five years. Middle-Asian Pallas' cats (F. (Otocolobus) manul ferrugineus) have been kept in the Moscow Zoo since 1997.
Pallas' cats are placed in cages. The cages look like a block of a two opposite aviaries, connected to each other by a shared corridor. 79 kb
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Husbandry of Pallas' Cats (Felis manul manul) at the Novosibirsk Zoo
O.V. Shilo, R.A. Shilo
The article presents methods of Pallas' cats' keeping, feeding, breeding and raising at Novosibirsk Zoo, and lists anti-worm medications. Pregnancy lasts from 59 to 73 days. Parent rearing of cubs, as well as rearing the cubs by domestic cats have been used and proved successful. 1,4 mb
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Wild cat species number and distribution in the USSR (extracts), 1973
A.A. Sludski
ANNOTATION
All wild cat species distribution in the former USSR is fully described in the article. They are European and African wild cats, leopard cat, chaus, lynx, caracal, Pallas cat, sand cat, tiger, leopard, snow leopard, cheetah. The description was made from the long-term author's investigations, the analises of annual fur harvests, and literary data. It is made the cats number. The separate part is devoted to Pallas' cat.
(full text is available in Russian) 926 kb
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Otocolobus manul
CITES, APPENDIX II
About Pallas' Cat in CITES Manual (1992). 204 kb
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Manul at the East Sayan and in Tunka Valley
D.G. Medvedev
ANNOTATION
In Tunka valley and on the east extremity of the East Sayan since 1985 till 2006 data about manul, cat's species which is exclusively rare for these places have been collected. In a ridge Tunkinsky alpinetundra belt and in some parts of a valley meetings of the manul, its traces, facts of the illegal extraction occurred as a rule is casual are registered. Manul's comings in its east part located in territory of Irkutsk area are noted also. It is established, that main and constant places of manul habitation is the Alpine part of a southern macroslope of a ridge Tunkinsky alpinetundra belt at the territory of republic Buryatiya. Manul is a new species for East Sayan and Tunkinsky national park. It is necessary for employees of the Tunkinsky national park to improve protection of a place of manul habitation and to strengthen struggle against its illegal extraction.
(full text is available in Russian) 57 kb
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Exploring the Ecologic Basis for Extreme Susceptibility of Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul) to Fatal Toxoplasmosis
Meredith Brown, Michael R. Lappin, Janine L. Brown, Bariushaa Munkhtsog, and William F. Swanson
Recent efforts by North American zoos to establish a genetically viable captive population of Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul) have been compromised by high newborn mortality (about 60%), primarily because of toxoplasmosis. The basis for this extreme susceptibility to toxoplasmosis is unknown. In the present study, the general health status of wild Pallas cats in Mongolia was evaluated, including assessment of basal hematologic parameters and fecal corticoid metabolite concentrations. 108 kb
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Silent Steppe: The Illegal Wildlife Trade Crisis in Mongolia
Wingard J.R. and P. Zahler
Extracts from the volume (July 2006) on this website: About Pallas' cat illegal trade in Mongolia. 35 kb
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Some Specifics and Problems Associated with Captive Management of Pallas' cats (Felis manul)
Irina Alekseicheva
ANNOTATION
Having gained a long-term experience of work with Pallas' cats, author agrees with the opinion of foreign scientists that Toxoplasmosis is the main cause of the high mortality rate in kittens and health problems in adult animals. Development of husbandry strategy for this species should be based on the prevention of infections with Toxoplasmosis of newly arriving animals and uninfected Pallas' cats, development of treatment protocols for infected animals and cats with clinical signs, and maintaining the immune status of Pallas' cats at the appropriate level. Regular examinations of faeces for oocytes are highly important. Post-mortem examination for Toxoplasmosis should be performed on all carcasses of Pallas' cats, regardless of the cause of death.
(full text is available in Russian) 69 kb
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Seasonal Fluctuations of the Behavioral Activity, Nutritional Requirements, and Weight in Pallas' Cats
T.S. Demina
ANNOTATION
Observations of Pallas' cats at the Moscow Zoo's Breeding Station demonstrated seasonal changes in the activity of the animals, as well as in daily food consumption and weights of the cats. Feeding features, seasonal dynamics of body weight and nutritional requirements are important factors affecting physiological condition of Pallas' cats, which are not active, especially in winter. Survival rate of this species depends on the availability of rich in calories food items which prove to be most important in such a critical season as autumn, when their fat resources, or energetic potential, is increasing.
(full text is available in Russian) 62 kb
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Some Statistics on the Breeding of Pallas' cats in the European Population
Irina Alekseicheva
Until the middle of the 1990's few zoos had Pallas' cats in their collections. To some extent this could be attributed to the low exhibit value of the species due to the small size and the incredible shyness of these animals, which is not typical of even the most cautious cats. However, the greatest problem in the husbandry of Pallas' cats is the high occurrence of still births and an extremely high kitten mortality rate, especially during the first six months of life. 66 kb
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Rare and scantly species of mammals of South-West Tuva
Tkachenko V.A., Tkachenko S.V.
ANNOTATION
In the article data of population and spread of rare, scantly and protected species in Mongun-Teigin kozhuun is displayed. The authors noted that Pallas cat is rather rare in South-West Tuva. Their number is not more than 30-40. The higher density is only in the marmota's settlements near the Mongolian boundary.
(full text is available in Russian) 49 kb
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Pallas Cat SSP
Martha Caron
A meeting of the Pallas Cat SSP was held in conjunction with the mid-year Felid TAG meeting in Saint Louis, MO on March 17, 2005. The current demographic and genetic status of the SSP population was reviewed. As of March 2004, the SSP population consisted of 65 cats (32.33.0) in 17 (soon to be 18) institutions. A list of seven potential new holding institutions willing to accept cats in 2006 has been compiled to date. 50 kb
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Getting Serious About Small Felids: The Necessity for Broader Zoo Involvement
Bill Swanson
Of the world's 36 felid species, 28 are classified as small cats, with average body mass of less than 20 kg. Many of these species face grave threats to their survival in the wild but, historically, have been relatively neglected in conservation and science circles. In 2001, the Felid Taxon Advisory Group established its first Species Survival Plans (SSPs) for small-sized felids, specifically for the ocelot, Pallas' cat, fishing cat, sand cat and blackfooted cat. 38 kb
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Modern state of mammals biodiversity of Kazakhstan Upland and factors that influence it
Erjanov N.T.
ANNOTATION
Author sais about mammals of Kazakhstan Upland. It is rich and diverse. Among others species Pallas cat inhabits this place. He occurs in southern part of upland in particular in Amantau, Karkaraly, Koshubai, Temirshi, and Jaksy-Abraly Mountains. In the west part he inhabits Aktau, Kyzyltau, and Ortau Mountains. Also he lives in the Chingiztau. There is no trustworthy data on Pallas cat from other parts of the upland.
(full text is available in Russian) 207 kb
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Cats in Arjin Mountains Reserve, China
Cat News
A Canadian team has reported snow leopard, Pallas cat and lynx in the Arjin Mountains Nature Reserve in Xinjiang, western China.
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Pallas Cat in Eastern Sayan
D.G. Medvedev
ANNOTATION
The author informs about the discovery of Pallas cat population in the Tunkinskie Goltsy range (Eastern Sayan), Republic of Buryatia. For the first time he found out Pallas cat tracks at a height of 2400 in February 14, 1985. Since that time Pallas cats are sometimes found there. Probably Pallas cat may penetrate Irkutsk region through the range and Tunkinskaya valley.
(full text is available in Russian)
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About Pallas cat (Felis manul Pall., 1778) nutrition and behaviour in the South-Eastern Zabaikalye
V.E. Kiriliuk
ANNOTATION
In article you can find a new information about nutrition and behaviour peculiarities of Pallas Cat. This data is obtained during the research conducted by Russian zoologists in three Pallas cat habitats in 1995 (in Chita region and Mongolia). There drawn conclusions that Pallas cat wellbeing is depend on the presence of territories with covers (e.g. outcrops) and a plenty of pikas and other Pallas cat preys.
(full text is available in Russian)
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Conserving the elusive Pallas cat and other carnivores of the Mongolian steppes
James Murdoch, Richard Reading
The grassland steppes of central Asia represent one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the world. Extending from Eastern Europe in a broad band through northern China, the grasslands cross over 8000 km and rival the great Serengeti Plains of Africa in magnitude and breadth. In Mongolia, the grassland steppes border the gravely terrain of the Gobi Desert, considered one of the worlds largest and most pristine desert ecosystems.
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Home Range Characteristics and Conservation of Pallas Cat in Mongolia
Bariushaa Munkhtsog, Steve Ross, Meredith Brown
The Pallas cat Otocolobus manul is a small felid endemic to Central Asia. Throughout its range, Pallas cat is under threat from habitat fragmentation, hunting and vermin control programs. Our knowledge of the status of Pallas cat is limited by our poor understanding of its ecology in the wild; this deficiency also prevents us creating priority based conservation programs for the species.
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Toxoplasmosis in Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul) raised in captivity
W. BASSO, R. EDELHOFER, W. ZENKER, K. MOSTL, A. KU BBER-HEISS and H. PROSL
Manuls or Pallas cats (Felis manul, syn. Otocolobus manul) are endangered wild cats from Central Asia kept and bred in many zoos. Despite good breeding success young cats frequently die from acute toxoplasmosis. From 1998 to 2002, a breeding pair in the Schonbrunn Zoo in Vienna, Austria, gave birth to 24 kittens; 58% of kittens died between the 2nd and the 14th week of life, mostly due to acute toxoplasmosis. The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Pallas cats was examined and a control strategy to protect the kittens from fatal toxoplasmosis was developed. One 12-week-old kitten from a litter of 6 born in 2001 died of generalized toxoplasmosis.
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Proviral Organization and Sequence Analysis of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Isolated from a Pallas Cat
MARGARET C. BARR, LILY ZOU, FAN LONG, WENDY A. HOOSE, and ROGER J. AVERY
The nucleotide sequence and genomic organization have been determined for a highly cytopathic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) isolated from a Pallas cat. The 9747-bp provirus of this virus, FIV-Oma, has typical lentivirus organization with LTRs, gag, pol, and env open reading frames (ORFs), putative vif and rev ORFs, and an ORF similar to ORF2/ORFA of domestic cat FIV isolates. Although the FIV-Oma provirus is 300 to 600 bp longer than other FIV proviruses, these additional bases are distributed throughout the genome.
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Pallas cat distribution and number in South-Eastern Zabaikalye and reasons of its changing
V.E. Kiriliuk, V.A. Puzanskiy
ANNOTATION
The main information about Pallas cat of Chita region is collected in the article. The authors have analysed a big volume of literature and archives and used data obtained during their own research in 1992-1997. There are figures of modern Pallas cat distribution and past skin purchases, a list of bibliography.
(full text is available in Russian)
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Immunodeficiency associated with multiple concurrent infections in captive Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul)
Ketz-Riley, C. J.; Ritchey, J. W.; Hoover, J. P.; Johnson, C. M.; Barrie, M. T.
Five neonatal Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul) at the Oklahoma City Zoo died from toxoplasmosis with concurrent herpesvirus infection.
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An intraerythrocytic small piroplasm in wild-caught Pallas's cats (Otocolobus manul) from Mongolia
Ketz-Riley, Cornelia J.; Reichard, Mason V.; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A.; Hoover, John P.; Meinkoth, James; Kocan, A. Alan
During the quarantine examination of four Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul) imported from Mongolia in October and December 2000, intraerythrocytic piroplasms were detected on Wright-Giemsa stained blood films that were morphologically indistinguishable from other small piroplasms of felids.
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Reproductive endocrine responses to photoperiod and exogenous gonadotropins in the Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul)
Brown, J. L.; Graham, L. H.; Wu, J. M.; Collins, D.; Swanson, W. F.
Reproductive endocrine responses to photoperiod and exogenous gonadotropins in the Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul)
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Toxoplasmosis in Pallas' cats (Otocolobus felis manul) at the Denver Zoological Gardens
Kenny, D. E.; Lappin, M. R.; Knightly, F.; Baier, J.; Brewer, M.; Getzy, D. M.
In May 1996 the Denver Zoological Gardens obtained two male and two female Pallas' cats (Otocolobus felis manul) that were wild-caught in the Ukraine.
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Gastric spiral bacteria in small felids
Kinsel, M. J.; Kovarik, P.; Murnane, R. D.
Nine small cats, including one bobcat (Felis rufus), one Pallas cat (F. manul), one Canada lynx (F. lynx canadensis), two fishing cats (F. viverrina), two margays (F. wiedii), and two sand cats (F. margarita), necropsied between June 1995 and March 1997 had large numbers of gastric spiral bacteria, whereas five large cats, including one African lion (Panthera lee), two snow leopards (P. uncia), one Siberian tiger (P. tigris altaica), and one jaguar (P. onca), necropsied during the same period had none.
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Influence of seasonality on reproductive traits of the male Pallas' cat (Felis manul) and implications for captive management
Swanson, W. F.; Brown, J. L.; Wildt, D. E.
A male Pallas' cat (Felis manul) was housed under natural lighting conditions in an outdoor pen for 20 mo and subjected to bimonthly reproductive evaluations consisting of blood sampling for hormonal analysis, testicular volume and body weight measurement, and electroejaculation.
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Fecal androgen metabolite analysis for non invasive monitoring of testicular steroidogenic activity in felids
Brown, J. L.; Terio, K. A.; Graham, L. H.
Limited data are available on long-term, seasonal changes in testicular steroidogenic activity in nondomestic felids, primarily because of the difficulties associated with longitudinal blood sampling (e.g., handling, restraint, anesthesia).
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(Otocolobus manul) . (in Russian)
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(Felis manul) - , . , , - . , , , , .
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Supported by Global Greengrants Fund     Maintained by A. Barashkova Translated by J. Krakovna and A. Barashkova     Design: D. Senotrusov